The leopard (Pantherapardusfusca, Meyer) is one of the least studied large cat of India distributed across India in a variety of habitats. It co-exists with lions in Gir National Park & Sanctuary in fairly high densities in entire Gir Landscape covering an area of approximately 20,000 Sq. Km. The Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University in collaboration with the Gujarat State Forest Department initiated a pioneering research project on the ecology of leopard in Gir in 2002 by Prof. Jamal A Khan. The SERC, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India funded this pioneering research program on leopard which later evolved into a long term study and Gir PA has the unique distinction of supporting such a long term study on large carnivore in India. Over the last 16 years, a large body of data on leopard, lions and associated prey species has accumulated through the efforts of different researchers and forest officers which now has been synthesized in this book from ecosystem’s perspective.The book provides valuable information on various aspects of ecology of leopard in Gir landscape and understanding gained from this long term study will provide basis for scientific management and conservation of leopard in Gir landscape especially in terms of its co-existence with lion in human dominated landscape where local people have played a crucial role in protection of both charismatic cats.