The purpose of this study is to isolate and define the concepts associated with the cow in the Rigveda so as to aid in the overall comprehension of passages wherein terms for ‘cow’ appear. The usual terms for ‘cow’ are aghnya (aghnya), usra, usriya, dhenu, go, vasa, and stari. Together, they occur nearly 700 times in the Rigveda, that is, more frequently than any other animal, and about as frequently as references to Indra, the most popular god in the Rigveda. The significant feature of this vast amount of material on the cow is that ‘cow’ terms appear in every major subject treated in the Rigveda. This text considers the economic, ritual and mythological aspects of Rigvedic life, though not with equal emphasis. The subject is dealt with in five chapters with a comprehensive analysis—Introduction, the cow in vedic economic life, in the vedic ritual, in vedic mythology and epithets. The Indra-Vrtra myth, the myth of the Panis and other mythological contexts are elaborately discussed. An exegesis on selected passage, Bibliography, Index of Rigvedic passages and word index are added for easy reference.