Environmental Biotechnology is concerned with the application of biotechnology as an emerging technology in the context of environmental protection, since rapid industrialisation, urbanisation and other developments have resulted in a threatened clean environment and depleted natural resources. It is not a new area of interest, because some of the issues of concern are familiar examples of old technologies, such as: composting, waste water treatment etc. In its early stage, environmental biotechnology has evolved from chemical engineering, but later, other disciplines (bio-chemistry, environmental engineering, environmental microbiology, molecular biology, and ecology) also contributed to environmental biotechnology. This edition is based on the graduate, post-graduate syllabus of Environmental Biotechnology / Environmental Sciences as per UGC guidelines. This edition covers almost all the areas from the basics to the advanced level to meet all the requirements of both the under- graduate and post-graduate level students. Every effort has been made to provide most updated information related to theory and lab practices of waste management and Bioremediation of Xenobiotics.