After a Phase of slow growth post independence, the Indian economy has experienced significant changes since the mid-1980s as a result of major reforms. India’s growth story has defied established economic patterns and, in the process, created interesting paradoxes that have attracted global attention. In this new edition of a concise handbook of the Indian economy in the 21st century, select chapters from the original have been updated to present a brief but comprehensive overview of the Indian economy, contributing to a finer understanding of India’s economic development. The volume adopts a non-ideological and forward-looking approach to discuss important economic issues. It takes into account various social and political factors impacting the Indian economy, and compares the importance of external market factors with that of domestic reforms in India’s economic growth. The book aims to provide a deep understanding of the economy based on careful fact-based research, which is a pre-requisite for formulating pragmatic reforms necessary to achieve sustained and inclusive growth.