This book examines 'dilemmas of justice' in participatory forest governance. Many natural resource management policies centered on participation of local communities aim at achieving equitable outcomes. Equity is usually understood as equality of outcomes and procedural equality. However neither equal distributional outcomes nor procedural equality necessarily lead to equitable in the sense of 'fair and just' outcomes. Outcomes can be equal but not fair. This clash of equity-equality principles is described as the 'dilemmas of justice'. The book interprets this clash as reflecting 'dilemmas of justice', as outlined by Nancy Fraser (2003) in her conception of redistribution versus recognition dilemma.The book investigates these dilemmas in Nepalese community forestry and explains whether and how it is possible to organize collective action of local communities and achieve recognition of, and unequal distribution as, positive discrimination from equal participation. This book shows that dilemmas of justice are manifested at the local level as the formal provision of equality principles leads to inequitable outcomes. The book highlights the need for a deeper understating of, and recognition to, the local politics and wider social relations in order to better understand and address the dilemmas of justice. Dr Krishna K. Shrestha is Senior lecturer of Development Studies at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.